China, the largest emitter of CO2 globally from coal-fuelled power stations, is rapidly building many more such plants around the world as no renewable energy processes have yet been adequate or sufficient to viably replace them. Most newer plants operate under gasified conditions at high temperatures which utilise ‘water-gas’ or H2 produced by the reaction between carbon monoxide, CO, and water, H2O:
These processes are currently in operation and used so the cost of production of this H2 is already being borne by the existing power stations while the CO2 is just wasted and pollutingly dumped into our atmosphere destroying Life and most likely Climate Stability. The H2 produced in these power stations can be used in the CO2 Recycling Add-On Process for financial gain instead of that produced by electrolysis which would be more expensive, for example. The process conditions of gasified power stations can be adjusted to vary or optimise the amount of H2 produced.
One should realise that methanogenesis is not dependent upon electrolysis which is merely one way of producing hydrogen and oxygen. The electrolysis in the methanogenesis CO2 Recycled patent is used primarily to maintain the pH without the need to apply acids or bases to do so and is far more cost effective and advantageous for that processing ease. H2 is available from many sources and is indeed mooted for transportation use as its distribution means are well established already. Any production of H2 and O2 from electrolysis would be beneficial especially if generated from underutilised renewable energy sources.
Existing gasified power stations already bear the costs of fossil fuels they use. These involve:
• Discovery of natural resources
• Extraction of the fossil-fuels
• Transportation to the power stations
• Storing and Handling of the fossil-fuels
• Processing of solids, liquids and gases
• Disposal of solid wastes (ash, etc.)
• Cooling of steam wastefully
• Disposal of CO2 (including dumping into our atmosphere)
• Penalties for contamination and pollution
The benefits of synergistic incorporation of the CO2 Recycled invention are obvious.
The references indicate that the thermodynamic costs of the CO2 to CH4 by methanogenesis process are very low in comparison with the very high costs involved in the powerstation electricity production independent separate process. This means that combining the two processes enables saving of many the costs above and makes obvious economic sense plus the altruistic benefits to all Life in our world becoming attainable.
CCSU processes are well developed; their only counterproductive properties relate to transportation costs to distant underground storage locations which prevent their use. As the CO2 being emitted is on power station sites this deterrent is eliminated and the new technology can be used in add-on recycling plants.
Very high temperatures around 800-1000oC are needed for the gasified power stations. The steam is condensed with expensive water-coolers while the heat is lost. Using heat-exchangers this heat can be used to provide the low temperatures required for the CO2 Recycled Process.
Electricity generators and suppliers should be happy to pay for the removal of their CO2 emissions by use in the add-on CO2 Recycled plants. Also for not having to dispose of ash and solid wastes, etc.
The use of the O2 also produced separately by the CO2 Recycled Plants can also be sold to the Power Stations for re-fueling the recycled CO2 as CH4 instead of air containing Nitrogen and Sulphur thus eliminating Nox and Sox.
All of these economic benefits surely greatly exceed any costs which may be required in the CO2 Recycled Process and/or nutrients for the methanogens plus the above-listed costs. The references below indicate that the energy is minimal for the methanogenesis reactions. Sound Business Acumen will realise this immediately.
Some references state that methanogens create their own energy only by methanogenesis or the production of methane: